Rehabilitation of attention and information processing and executive functions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) may be effected through enhanced recruitment of brain networks subserving the trained functions, according to new research.
In the study, Massimo Filippi, M.D., of San Raffaele Vita-Salute University in Milan, Italy, assigned 20 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and cognitive deficits at baseline to undergo treatment that entailed computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation of attention and information processing and executive functions, or to serve as control subjects without cognitive rehabilitation. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychologic assessment and MR imaging at baseline and after 12 weeks.
As compared with their performance at baseline, the patients in the treatment group improved at tests of attention and information processing and executive functions, researchers discovered. "Our results show that functional MR imaging techniques might be suitable for monitoring the effect of therapeutic interventions in patients with MS," they write.
Exposure to microgravity can result in a spectrum of intraorbital and intracranial findings similar to those in idiopathic intracranial hypertension, new research shows.
In a retrospective study, Larry A. Kramer, M.D., of the University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, and colleagues used quantitative and qualitative MR to identify intraorbital and intracranial abnormalities in 27 astronauts previously exposed to microgravity.
Thin-section three-dimensional T2-weighted orbital images depicted central T2 hyperintensity of the optic nerve and structural detail of the optic papilla not well established in the literature, according to results.
"Physiologic changes occurring during exposure to microgravity may help elucidate mechanisms responsible for terrestrial idiopathic intracranial hypertension," the authors write.
There are complementary benefits to combining standard MR pulmonary angiography (PA), 3D-gradient-echo (GRE) and triggered true fast imaging with steady-state precision (FISP) MR examinations for evaluation of pulmonary embolism (PE), according to new research.
In a retrospective study of the three techniques on 22 patients with a CT angiography (CTA) diagnosis of PE, Bobby Kalb, M.D., of Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, and colleagues discovered sensitivities for PE detection were 55 percent for MRPA, 67 percent for triggered true FISP and 73 percent for 3D-GRE MR imaging. Combining all three MR sequences improved overall sensitivity to 84 percent, results showed.
"This study shows potential gains in PE detection by using nonstandard vascular MR imaging methods designed to bypass the need for accurately timed arterial phase contrast enhancement, breath holding, or obviate the need for contrast material administration altogether," the authors writ
Volume doubling times (VDTs) of lung cancers detected in annual rounds of CT screening are not significantly different from those detected in the absence of screening, new research shows.
Addressing the concern that lung cancers diagnosed through CT screening may not be as aggressive as those detected in clinical practice, Claudia I. Henschke, Ph.D., M.D., of Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, and colleagues reviewed distribution of VDTs of lung cancers diagnosed in repeat annual rounds of CT screening in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP), first and foremost with respect to rates of tumor growth, but also in terms of cell types.
Researchers reviewed I-ELCAP results for 1993 to 2009 of men and women at risk for lung cancer who underwent annual repeat rounds of CT screening. Researchers identified 111 instances of first primary lung cancer diagnosed either through screening or between rounds after a negative result of the prior screening seven to 18 months earlier. Of the 111 cancers identified, 88 were clinical Stage I. Investigators then analyzed volume doubling time and cell-type distribution.
Results showed that the median volume doubling time was 98 days. Ninety-nine of the 111 cancers manifested as solid nodules, while only 12 of the cancers manifested as sub-solid nodules. Lung cancers manifesting as sub-solid nodules had significantly longer VDTs than those manifesting as solid nodules.
VDTs for lung cancers diagnosed in clinical practice in the absence of screening have been reported to range from 20 to 360 days. A recent study, based on a systematic medical literature review, reported a mean volume doubling time of 135 days for non-small-cell lung cancers diagnosed in the absence of screening.
"Because the distribution of VDTs of lung cancers diagnosed in annual screening rounds is significantly different for cancers manifesting as solid nodules than for those manifesting as sub-solid nodules, work-up and treatment may become more tailored according to nodule consistency."
From mid-January to mid-February, media outlets carried 2,047 RSNA-related news stories. These stories reached an estimated 8 million people.
Print coverage included The Washington Post, Philadelphia Inquirer, Kansas City Star, Hartford Courant and The Honolulu Star-Advertiser.
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Online coverage included The New York Times, Boston Globe, Arizona Republic, Houston Chronicle, The Huffington Post, Yahoo! Finance, CNN, Fox News, Daily News (London) and Science Daily.
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In recognition of American Stroke Month in May, RSNA is distributing public service announcements (PSAs) focusing on:
In addition to the PSAs, RSNA is also distributing the "60-Second Checkup" audio program to radio stations. This month, the program focuses on the use of MR imaging in stroke diagnosis.
Videos on CT During Pregnancy, MR Angiography and MR Imaging are now available on RadiologyInfo.org as part the "Your Radiologist Explains" series providing visitors with a unique format for learning about radiology procedures.
The videos, featuring PowerPoint presentations with images and narration, help explain various radiology tests and treatments to patients. New videos will continue to be added to RadiologyInfo.org. All presentations were created by members of the RSNA-American College of Radiology (ACR) Public Information Website Committee.
View the videos here:
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