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  • Journal Highlights

    July 01, 2014

    The following are highlights from current issues of RSNA’s two peer-reviewed journals.

    Typical RS functional connectivity networks
    (Click to enlarge) Typical RS functional connectivity networks in healthy controls. Mean RS functional MR imaging networks shown in axial view and 3D reconstructions. Colors represent percentage BOLD signal change, overlaid on the average anatomic images in standard space.
    (Radiology 2014;272;1:29–49) ©RSNA, 2014. All rights reserved. Printed with permission.

    Radiology
    Resting-state Functional MR Imaging: A New Window to the Brain

    Resting-state (RS) functional MR imaging has proven to be a very rich source of brain connectivity data, which can be obtained within 10 minutes of scanning and offer an unprecedented new window into the brain.

    RS functional MR imaging identifies alterations in functional connectivity in many neurologic and psychiatric diseases, even in neonates and in patients with coma or dementia. In an article in the July issue of Radiology (RSNA.org/Radiology), Frederick Barkhof, M.D., Ph.D., of the Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Centre, the Netherlands, and colleagues discuss RS functional MR imaging in terms of:

    • Data acquisition and analysis techniques
    • Brain development and normal aging
    • Consciousness, pain and anesthesia
    • Drugs and addiction
    • Dementia and neurodegenerative diseases
    • Developmental disorders and psychiatry
    • White matter disease

    Although RS functional MR imaging is gaining substantial traction in the neuroscience community and several clinical applications are starting to emerge, “… better understanding of physiologic and pharmacologic effects and confounds are needed before clinical application can be established,” the authors conclude.

    This article meets the criteria for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. SA-CME is available online only.
    CT images with FBP show a stone at the tip of the left renal calyx
    (Click to enlarge) CT images (2-mm thickness) obtained at a standard dose of 7.9 mGy with FBP show a stone at the tip of the left renal calyx. Note the improved noise reduction and improved stone conspicuity with use of MBIR compared with FBP and ASIR. Improved image quality with iterative reconstruction and other denoising techniques is generally best achieved with use of thinner images.
    (RadioGraphics 2014;34;849–862) ©RSNA, 2014. All rights reserved. Printed with permission.

    Radiographics
    Methods for Clinical Evaluation of Noise Reduction Techniques in Abdominopelvic CT

    Existing noise reduction strategies for dose reduction have a substantial impact on lowering the radiation dose at CT. To preserve the diagnostic benefit of CT, thoughtful utilization of these strategies must be based on the inherent lesion-to-background contrast and the anatomy of interest.

    In an article in the July-August issue of RadioGraphics (RSNA.org/RadioGraphics), Eric C. Ehman, M.D., of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., and colleagues provide an overview of existing noise reduction strategies for low-dose abdominopelvic CT, including analytic reconstruction, image and projection space denoising and iterative reconstruction. The authors also review qualitative and quantitative tools for evaluating these strategies and discuss the strengths and limitations of individual noise reduction methods.

    Methods are needed for quantitating contrast-dependent spatial resolution, conducting observer performance studies for a variety of diagnostic tasks (and developing tools to facilitate the rapid completion of these tasks) and predicting the lowest dose that will allow adequate performance on specific CT systems, according to the authors.

    “The full impact of noise reduction techniques on radiation dose and radiologist performance is in the early phases of realization, with great potential to benefit patients by decreasing the radiation dose they receive while undergoing CT,” the authors write.

    This article meets the criteria for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. SA-CME is available online only.

    Radiology Podcasts

    Radiology Podcasts logoListen to Radiology Editor Herbert Y. Kressel, M.D., deputy editors and authors discuss the following articles in the May issue of Radiology at RSNA.org/RadiologyPodcasts:

    • “Radiation Dose Index of Renal Colic Protocol CT Studies in the United States: A Report from the American College of Radiology National Radiology Data Registry,” Adam Lukasiewicz, M.S., and colleagues, and the editorial, “Radiation Dose Reduction in Renal Colic Protocol CT: Are We Doing Enough to Ensure Adoption of Best Practices?” by James A. Brink, M.D.
    • “Carotid Artery Plaque Morphology and Composition in Relation to Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA),” Anna E. H. Zavodni, M.D., and colleagues.
    • “In Vivo 35Cl MR Imaging in Humans: A Feasibility Study,” Armin M. Nagel, Ph.D., and colleagues.
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